Newsletter 202 - "Understand School Violence 6"
This group of articles is a summary of a web link by the “Western Cape Education Department (WCED). (24 May 2018). Safe Schools Programme. SaferSpaces”
South Africa has a robust policy framework dedicated to preventing and responding to school violence. The National School Safety Framework, in particular, is a comprehensive, clear, evidence-based framework on school safety. A major challenge, however, lies in the lack of monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of these school safety frameworks, policies and protocols. For example, while officially the National School Safety Framework has been rolled out in schools across the country, it is unclear: a) to what extent it has been implemented in public schools; and b) the impact it has had in the schools in which it has been implemented. Monitoring and evaluation of school safety policies and interventions are essential in determining what is effective and, consequently, where our energies and limited resources should be devoted.
A further challenge is that there is a lack of clarity on roles and responsibilities in the school safety sector. This can result in overlapping mandates on the one hand and gaps in service provision, on the other. Consequently, the key stakeholders in the school safety sector should adopt a more coordinated and integrated approach to school safety, embedded in a broader social crime prevention strategy (CJCP, 2017b). This approach should be characterised by improved communication and collaboration, clearly defined mandates and effective accountability mechanisms.
School violence is rife in South Africa. To effectively address this violence, it is essential that a ‘’whole of school approach’’ to school safety be adopted. Such an approach highlights the key role of school management, educators, learners and community members in combating violence and promoting safety in schools.
Safe schools are not only essential in ensuring the right of learners and educators to ‘’freedom from all forms of violence’’ and the right of learners to a basic education, but safe, well-functioning schools have a positive impact on the communities in which they are situated and the society more broadly. Safe schools can play an integral role in building a safer South Africa for all (NDP 2030, 2012).
*A special thank-you to the following individuals for their inputs: Guy Lamb, UCT SaVI; Jessie Böhr, GIZ South Africa; Nazeem Sheik-Ismail, Safe Schools Program, Western Cape Government; Jonas Schumacher, Masifunde Learner Development; and Shiralee Mcdonald and Zeenat Hendricks of Rape Crisis Cape Town Trust.
- Burton, P., Ward, C. L., Artz, L., & Leoschut, L. (2015). Optimus Study on Child Abuse, Neglect and Violence in South Africa. Research Bulletin, 6. Cape Town: Centre for Justice and Crime Prevention and University of Cape Town.
- Burton, P. & Leoschut, L. (2013). School Violence in South Africa: Results of the 2012 National School Violence Study. Monograph Series 12. Cape Town: Centre for Justice and Crime Prevention.
- Burton, P., Leoschut, L. & Bonora, A. (2009). Walking the tightrope: Youth resilience to crime in South Africa. Cape Town: Centre for Justice and Crime Prevention.
- Burton, P. (2008). Merchants, Skollies and Stones: Experiences of school violence in South Africa. Cape Town: Centre for Justice and Crime Prevention.
- Burton, P. (2006). Easy Prey: Results of the National Youth Victimisation Study. South African Crime Quarterly, 16, 1–6. doi: https://doi.org/10.17159/2413-3108/2006/v0i16a993
- Brown, L., Simelane, B. & Malan, G. (July 2016). Dr. Nelson Mandela High School Neighbourhood Watch Assessment Project: An Assessment of the Nyanga Neighbourhood watch project implemented at Dr. Nelson Mandela High School. Cape Town: Sub-Programme Policy and Research, Western Cape Department of Community Safety.
- CALS, AVON Foundation for Women & Ford Foundation. (May 2014). Sexual Violence by Educators in South African Schools: Gaps in Accountability. Johannesburg: Centre for Applied Legal Studies, Cornell Law School’s Avon Global Center for Women and Justice and International Human Rights Clinic. Available: https://www.wits.ac.za/media/wits-university/faculties-and-schools/commerce-law-and-management/research-entities/cals/documents/programmes/gender/Sexual%20Violence%20by%20Educators%20Size%20180270%20NEW.pdf
- Centre for Justice and Crime Prevention (CJCP). (2016). The National School Safety Framework. Cape Town: Centre for Justice and Crime Prevention. Available: http://www.cjcp.org.za/national-school-safety-framework.html
- Centre for Justice and Crime Prevention (CJCP). (2017a). Sexual Violence aganst young girls in schools in South Africa. SaferSpaces. Available: https://www.saferspaces.org.za/be-inspired/entry/sevissa
- Centre for Justice and Crime Prevention (CJCP). (2017b). School Violence in South Africa. Cape Town: Centre for Justice and Crime Prevention. Available: http://www.cjcp.org.za/school-violence-in-south-africa.html
- Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, Act 108 of 1996.
- Cluver, L., Bowes, L. & Gardner, F. (2010). Risk and protective factors for bullying victimization among AIDS-affected and vulnerable children in South Africa. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34(10), 793–803. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2010.04.002
- Department of Basic Education (DBE). (4 August 2015). “School Safety / Violence & Bullying in Schools; Quality Learning and Teaching Campaign (QLTC) Implementation: progress report,” presented at the Presentation to the Portfolio Committee on Basic Education: School Safety Violence and Bullying.
- Department of Basic Education (DBE). (2016). Safety in schools. Pretoria: Department of Basic Education. Available: http://www.education.gov.za/Programmes/SafetyinSchools/tabid/625/Default.aspx
- Department of Basic Education, Republic of South Africa and South African Police Service (DBE, RSA, & SAPS). (2011). Safety in Education: Partnership Protocol between the DBE and SAPS.
- Department of Basic Education (DBE). (2018). Department to launch STOP, WALK, TALK Anti-Bullying Campaign. Available: https://www.education.gov.za/ArchivedDocuments/ArchivedArticles/Anti-bullyingCampaign.aspx
- Department of Education. (2000). Alternatives to Corporal Punishment: The learning experience. Pretoria: Department of Education.
- Equal Education. (2016). Of ‘Loose Papers and Vague Allegations’: A Social Audit Report on the Safety and Sanitation Crisis in Western Cape Schools. Available: https://equaleducation.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Western-Cape-Schools-Safety-and-Sanitation-Social-Audit-Report.pdf
- European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. (2013). Occupational safety and health and education: a whole school approach. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
- Farrington, D.P. & Ttofi, M.M. (2009). School-based programs to reduce bullying and victimization. Campbell Systematic Review, 5(6).
- Flisher, A.J., Ward, C.L., Liang, H., Onya, H., Mlisa, N., Terblanche, S., Bhana, A., Parry, C.D. & Lombard, C.J. (2006). Injury-related behaviour among South African high-school students at six sites. South African Medical Journal, 96(9), 825–830.
- Gevers, A. & Flisher, A.J. (2012). “School-based violence prevention interventions,” in C. Ward, A. van der Merwe, & A. Dawes (Eds.), Youth violence: Sources and solutions in South Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: UCT Press, pp. 175–212.
- Government of the Republic of South Africa. (15 August 2012). ‘’Chapter 12: Building Safer Communities’’ in National Development Plan 2030: Our future – make it work. Available: https://www.gov.za/sites/default/files/NDP-2030-Our-future-make-it-work_r.pdf
- Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC). (15 June 2017). ‘Schools are so violent teachers live in fear’. Available: http://www.hsrc.ac.za/en/hsrc-in-the-news/education-and-skills-development/violence-in-schools
- Jessie Böhr. (23 July 2018a). ‘Ulutsha Street Festival 2018: ‘’Stop Violence against Children and Women!’’’. SaferSpaces. Available: https://www.saferspaces.org.za/blog/entry/ulutsha-street-festival-2018-stop-violence-against-children-and-women
- J. Böhr (personal communication, July 27, 2018b).
- J. Schumacher (personal communication, July 28, 2018).
- Lamb, G. and Warton, G. (2017). School Safety in the Western Cape: Strengths, Limitations and Recommendations. Round table briefing document. Cape Town: Safety and Violence Initiative, University of Cape Town.
- Leoschut, L. (2008). School Violence: What makes learners vulnerable? Issue Paper 7. Cape Town: Centre for Justice and Crime Prevention.
- Leoschut, L. (2009). Running Nowhere Fast: Results of the 2008 National Youth Lifestyle Study. Cape Town: Centre for Justice and Crime Prevention.
- Leoschut, L. & Burton, P. (2006). How rich the rewards: Results of the 2005 National Youth Victimisation Study. Cape Town: Centre for Justice and Crime Prevention.
- Liang, H., Flisher, A.J. & Lombard, C.J. (2007). Bullying, violence, and risk behavior in South African school students. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31(2), 161–171. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.08.007
- Linda Zali. (10 July 2018). Youth for Safer Communities. SaferSpaces. Available: https://www.saferspaces.org.za/be-inspired/entry/youth-for-safer-communities
- Mncube, V. & Harber, C. (2013). The Dynamics of Violence in South African schools: Report. Pretoria: University of South Africa.
- National Centre for Injury Prevention and Control (CDC), Division of Violence Prevention. The Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway in Early Adolescence. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/asap_bullyingsv-a.pdf
- National Education Policy, Act 27 of 1996.
- Ngqela, N. & Lewis, A. (2012). Exploring adolescent learners’ experiences of school violence in a township high school. Child Abuse Research: A South African Journal, 13(1), 87–97.
- NICOC Gangsterism Task Team. (October 2015). National Anti-Gangsterism Strategy. Pretoria: NICOC.
- Olweus, D. & Limber, S.P. (2010). The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program: Implementation and Evaluation over Two Decades.” In S. R. Jimerson, S. M. Swearer, & D. L. Espelage (Eds.), Handbook of bullying in schools: An international perspective (pp. 377-401). New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
- Rape Crisis Cape Town Trust (RCCTT). (17 May 2017). Birds and the Bees peer-education programme: challenging harmful norms around sexual violence. SaferSpaces. Available: https://www.saferspaces.org.za/be-inspired/entry/birds-and-the-bees-peer-education-programme-challenging-harmful-norms
- Regan Jules-Macquet. (3 December 2017). Umhlali - Building safer communities through youth resilience. SaferSpaces. Available: https://www.saferspaces.org.za/be-inspired/entry/umhlali-building-safer-communities-through-youth-resilience
- Regulations for Safety Measures at Public Schools, Regulation 1128 of 2006.
- Republic of South Africa (RSA). (7 August 2013). The DBE and SAPS celebrate the symbolic signing and launch of the partnership protocol agreement. Available: http://www.gov.za/dbe-and-saps-celebrate-symbolic-signing-and-launch-partnership-protocol-agreement
- Soudien, C. and Juan, A. (2018). The right to education in South Africa: the struggle continues. NORRAG Special Issue. 01:89-91.
- South African Schools, Act 84 of 1996.
- South African Council for Educators (SACE). (2017). SACE Structures. Centurion: South African Council for Educators. Available: https://www.sace.org.za/pages/sace-structures#
- South African Council for Educators, Act 31 of 2000 (as ammended).
- Shaw, M. (2005). ‘’Chapter 10: Comprehensive Approches to School Safety and Security - An International View,” in School Safety and Security: Lessons in Danger. OECD Publishing, pp. 91–107.
- United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (UN CEDAW). (5 April 2011). 48th Sess., 17 January – 4 February 2011, 31, U.N. Doc. CEDAW/C/ZAF/CO/4.
- United Nations Educational, Social and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (2017). School Violence and Bullying: Global Status Report. Place de Fontenoy, Paris, France. Available: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002469/246970e.pdf
- Western Cape Government (WCG). (2018). After School Game Changer. Western Cape Government. Available: https://www.westerncape.gov.za/after-school-game-changer/
- Western Cape Government (WCG). (2016a). ‘’Making our schools safe for every learner’’. Western Cape Government. Available: https://www.westerncape.gov.za/general-publication/making-our-schools-safe-every-learner
- Western Cape Government (WCG). (2016b). “MEDIA ALERT: Minister Plato to launch Strand Walking Bus initiative”, 17-Oct-2016. Available: https://www.westerncape.gov.za/news/media-alert-minister-plato-launch-strand-walking-bus-initiative
- Western Cape Government After-School Game Changer (WC ASGC). (26 November 2017). After-School Game Changer Programme. SaferSpaces. Available: https://www.saferspaces.org.za/be-inspired/entry/after-school-game-changer-programme
- Western Cape Government Department of Community Safety (WC DOCS). (10 February 2017). Report on the Expert Workshop on National Anti-Gangsterism Strategy, held on 2 December 2016 at Chrysalis Academy, Tokai. Available: https://www.westerncape.gov.za/assets/departments/community-safety/expert_workshop_national_anti_gangsterism_strategy_report.pdf
- Western Cape Education Department (WCED). (24 May 2018). Safe Schools Programme. SaferSpaces. Available: https://www.saferspaces.org.za/be-inspired/entry/safe-schools-programme